S, Argentina, and Brazil have always included large immigrant populations. Citizenship in those countries is based not on ethnic grounds but on a different sort of national identity in which commitment to certain values and ideas is paramount. But for many European countries, the nation is often defined in a cultural way—by a common language, heritage, and ethnicity. This raises important questions for countries that do not have long traditions of immigration.
Institutionalized Participation and Political Activism To assess political engagement broadly we use ISSP items asking respondents if they have done a variety of forms of political actions.
Formal, more traditional electoral participation is measured according to whether the respondent is a member of a political party and whether the respondent voted in the last election.
For party membership possible responses include: The item was reverse coded such that higher values refer to more engagement and to start at zero. In doing so, we followed prior research suggesting these types of participation may be organized according to theoretical categories.
While the items scale reasonably well as one aggregate measure, the patterns previously found in Great Britain by Pattie et al. Specifically, our results mirror those of Pattie et al.
For the three item scales, respondents missing on two or more items were deleted, and for the two item scale, only when missing on both items. Results using listwise deletion of all missing values are consistent with this approach. Scales were divided by the total number of valid responses, thus range from zero to three.
The scales are coded such that higher values indicate more engagement. The alpha scores are not remarkable high, but are within the acceptable range for large-scale survey analysis, and are supported by factor scores and results from analyzing each item separately.
Independent Variables The main focus of the analysis, gender, is a dichotomous variable with the value 0 for male and 1 for female respondents. Further, education is measured as a dichotomous variable indicating whether the individual has attained a university degree.
Age is a continuous control variable. We also introduce a squared value for age to control for non-linearities in the effect as a life-course control. Employment status is represented by three categories: Very high numbers of missing values on income made it impossible to include.
However, occupation may be a more useful concept overall given that it taps into differential earnings groups, and latent aspects of social class Abbott Marital status has three categories: Household composition is a dichotomous variable distinguishing households with children from other household compositions.
More nuanced measures of household composition, which divided household according to single adult with children households, all adult households, and two or more adults with children households were also operationalized.
None were significant, thus a more parsimonious measure was chosen. The place of residence is self-assessed and coded as 0 for rural and 1 for urban.
Religious denomination is divided in four categories: Religious attendance is a continuous variable ranging from 0 never to 7 several time a week. A variety of politically-relevant attitudes may also be important. In particular, we look at three types of political attitudes: Explaining political action by political attitudes may face problems of reverse causality.
Due to this we refrain from statements about the causality of the effects and talk instead about correlation. The measure of political efficacy is agreement with two items scaled: Finally, we control for context, broadly defined, by including dummy variables for each country.
A gender gap in citizenship norms may be shaped by contextual factors beyond the scope of this analyses, thus it is important to account for possible macro influences since they may influence political activism Lister et al. Since our focus is not on explaining cross-national differences we exclude these coefficients from our tables presented below.
All statistics were run with the statistical program Stata version Gender differences are tested through appropriate mainly logistic bivariate regression models that include dummies for country as well as robust standard errors clustered by nation to test for significant gender differences.The European Commission runs Culture Programme (), and the EU funds other cultural bodies such as the European Cultural Month, the Media Programme, the European Union Youth Orchestra and the European Capital of Culture programme.
Since Dr Shore has been studying the cultural policies and practices of the European Union, in particular the ethos of the European Commission in Brussels and its employees. He has published widely on the anthropology of policy, applied anthropology, education, new reproductive technologies and the politics of identity.
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