Scope[ edit ] Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times. Although some have limited rhetoric to the specific realm of political discourse, many modern scholars liberate it to encompass every aspect of culture. Contemporary studies of rhetoric address a much more diverse range of domains than was the case in ancient times.
Print version This is, to the best of our knowledge, the world's first open content US History Textbook. The users are invited to tweak and refine this book until there is nothing better available.
The authors are confident that this will happen because of the success of the Wikipedia site. Europeans "discovered" and colonized the North American continent and, even after they lost political control over its territory, their influence has predominated due to a common language, social ideals, and culture.
Therefore, when endeavoring to understand the history of the United States, it is helpful to briefly describe their European origin. Greece and Rome See also: By BCE, various Greek city-states, sharing a language and a culture based on slavery, pioneered novel political cultures.
In the Greek city of Athens, by about BCE, the male citizens who owned land began to elect their leaders. These elections by the minority of a minority represent the first democracy in the world. Other states in Greece experimented with other forms of rule, as in the totalitarian state of Sparta.
These polities existed side by side, sometimes warring with each other, at one time combining against an invading army from Persia.
Ancient Athens is known for its literary achievements in drama, history, and personal narrative. The individual city-states did not usually see themselves as a single entity.
The conqueror Alexander the Great, who called himself a Greek, actually was a native of the non-Greek state of Macedon. The city of Rome was founded traditionally in the year BCE.
Slowly, Rome grew from a kingdom to a republic to a vast empire, which, at various points, included most of present-day Britain a large part of Scotland never belonged to the empireFrance then known as GaulSpain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Iraq, Palestine including the territory claimed today by the modern state of IsraelNorthern Arabia, Egypt, the Balkans, and the entire north coast of Africa.
This empire was maintained through free-born or adoptive citizenship, citizen education and indoctrination, a large and well-drilled army, and taxes directed by a large bureaucracy directed by the emperor.
As each province produced more Roman citizens, the state became hard to maintain. Whole kingdoms in the north and east, and the invading peoples we know as the Germanic tribes the Ostrogoths and Visigoths and the Franks sat apart from the system.
After the death of one emperor in CE, power struggles between the army and a succession of rulers of contested origins produced anarchy. Diocletian - reinstated the Empire by Rome regained territory untilwhen the Empire was so large that it had to be divided into two parts, each with a separate ruler.
The two halves sat uneasily together.
The East, which considered itself the heir of Alexander the Great, spoke Greek or a dialect, while the West spoke Latin. The Eastern Empire survived untilbut the system to maintain the Western Empire broke apart.
Plagues and crop failures troubled the world. InGermanic tribes deposed the boy who was then the Emperor.
Roman roads fell into disrepair, and travel became difficult. Some memories remained in the lands which had once known Roman rule. The supreme rulers of various tribes called themselves king, a distortion of the Roman word Caesar.
Catholicism eventually spread through England where the Germanic tribes of the Angles and the Saxons now lived and to the lands of the post-Roman Germanic tribes. Among those tribes, the Franks rose to prominence.
Charlemagne -the King of the Franks, conquered great portions of Europe.
He eventually took control of Rome. The senate and the political organs of Rome had disappeared, and Charlemagne did not pretend to become the head of the Church.
Charlemagne's domain, a confederation of what had been Roman Gaul with Germanic states, was much smaller than Diocletian had known. But prestige came with identity with the past, and so this trunk of lands became The Holy Roman Empire. Charlemagne's descendants, as well as local rulers, took their sanction from the Church, while the Church's pope influenced both religious and political matters.
The result of political stability was technological advance. After the yearWestern Europe caught some of the East's discoveries, and invented others. In addition to vellum, Europeans now started making paper of rags or wood pulp. They also adopted the wind and water mill, the horse collar for plows and for heavy weightsthe moldboard plow, and other agricultural and technological advances.
Towns came into being, and then walled cities. More people survived, and the knights and kings over them grew restive.creative writing scaffold mythical creatures alfred kazin essays on education funny college admission essay nyu athletics cxc english persuasive essay Understanding a research paper makes me feel like I've just grown up.
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